ALAUDDIN KHALJI – AD 1296–1316


Alauddin Khalji

Alauddin Khalji was a nephew and son-in-law to Jalaluddin.

During Jalaluddin’s reign, Alauddin had two triumphant expeditions.

Upon Bhilsa’s first expedition (Vidisa) in 1292 AD, besides that of Kara, he was granted the iqta of Awadh.

He was also appointed Minister of Defense (Arizi-i-Mumalik).

He led the first Turkish expedition to southern India in AD 1294 and pillaged Devagiri.

He assassinated his uncle and father-in-law Jalaluddin Khalji in July AD 1296, and he proclaimed himself as the Sultan.

Alauddin wanted to restore the ruthless-governance practices of Balban. He resolved to curtail the nobles ‘ forces and Ulema’s interference in state affairs.

To discourage these rebellions from occurring again, Alauddin devised and enforced those laws.

(1) Families who had received free land for their own benefit would pay property tax on their properties. This curbed the unnecessary riches some people owned.

(2) The Sultan reorganized and took steps to make the spy program more effective.

(3) Illegal to use drugs and intoxicants.

(4) Without his approval, the nobles were required to have no social meetings or intermarriages.

 

Market Regulations of Alauddin Khalji:

To regulate the rates, Alauddin founded three separate commodity markets in Delhi.

Such markets were:

[1] the grain market (Mandi),

[2] the cloth market (Sarai Adl) and

[3] the market for horses, slaves, goats, etc.

Alauddin appointed a superintendent (Shahna-i-Mandi) who was accompanied by an intelligence officer to ensure its execution.

Apart from Shahna-i-Mandi, Alauddin received daily market updates from two other primary outlets, barid (officer for intelligence) and munhiyans (secret spies).

Command of horses’ prices was very important to the Sultan since, without the provision of good horses to the army at a fair price, the army’s output could not be assured.

Low price on the horse market was assured by preventing horse traders and brokers (dalals) from buying horses in Delhi city.

 

Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate:

Under Alauddin Khalji, the most notable accomplishment was the geographical extension of the Delhi Sultanate, beyond North India.

First Alauddin began his territorial expansion with an anti-Gujarat campaign.

Gujarat’s prosperity was to pay for his eventual conquests and its seaport was to provide his army with a daily supply of Arab horses.

In 1299 AD an army marched toward Gujarat under two of Alauddin’s renowned generals Ulugh Khan and Nusarat Khan.

Rai Karan the Gujarat king fled, Somnath’s temple was seized.

Muslim traders haven’t been spared.

Numerous prisoners have been captured.

Malik Kafur was among those that later became the revered Leader of the Khalji Forces and led the invasions of South India.

Following Gujarat’s annexation, Alauddin turned his attention to Rajasthan.

Ranthambore’s capture was necessary to undermine the Rajputs ‘ strength and morale.

The immediate cause of the attack was that two rebellious Mongolian soldiers were given refuge by the governor of Ranthambore Hamirdeva and declined to hand them over to the Khalji emperor.

Consequently, an offensive towards Ranthambore was launched.

In AD 1303, Alauddin besieged another powerful Rajputana province, Chittor.

Chittor was renamed Khizrabad after Sultan’s son Khizr Khan was named after him.

Malwa was captured in AD 1305, by the Khalji army under Ain-ul-Mulk.

They have captured other states including Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar, and Chanderi.

After Malwa’s invasion, Alauddin sent Malik Kafur to the South, invading Siwana on himself.

Siwana king Raja Shital Deva bravely guarded the fort but was finally defeated.

The Kingdom of Rajput Jalor was also conquered in 1311 AD.

Thus Alauddin had completed the conquest of major parts of Rajputana by 1311 AD and was the ruler of Northern India.

 

Deccan and South India:

Alauddin drew the riches of the Southern Kingdoms.

The southward expeditions were sent under Malik Kafur, a respected Alauddin commander who held the Naib office.

Alauddin decided to fresh campaign in Deccan in 1306–07 AD.

His first goal was Rai Karan (Gujarat’s earlier rule), now occupying Baglana, and defeating him.

The second expedition was against Rai Ramachandra, Deogir’s ruler who had previously pledged to pay tribute to Sultan but did not submit.

Ramachandra surrendered to Malik Kafur after little resistance and received honorable treatment.

Ramachandra was kept a guest at the court of Alauddin and was granted a gift of one lakh tankas and Rai Rayan’s title.

He was also granted a district of Gujarat, and Alauddin married one of his daughters.

Alauddin showed generosity toward Ramachandra as he wanted Ramachandra as an ally in the South for campaigns.

Malik Kafur was sent to South India to begin operation after AD 1309.

The first expedition was against Pratab Rudradeva of Warangal in the Telangana region.

The second drive was targeting Dwar Samudra and Ma’bar (Tamil Nadu and present Karnataka).

Dwar Samudra ruler Vir Ballala III agreed without any resistance to pay tribute to Sultan.

In the case of Malabar (Pandya Kingdom), there could not be a clear conclusive war.

But Kafur plundered as many as he could including a number of affluent temples like Chidambaram’s.

Alauddin’s armies under Malik Kafur maintained a hold on the Deccan kingdoms.

The Delhi Sultanate was thrown into chaos following Alauddin’s death in 1316 A.D.

The Khalji dynasty came to an end just four years after Alauddin’s death, and authority fell into the hands of the Tughlaqs.