Alluvial soil is the most important soil type of India.
It covers the vast valley areas of the Sutlej, Ganga, and Brahmaputra and the fringes of the southern peninsula.
It is thin near the fringe of the plateau.
The alluvial soils occupy 64 million hectares of the most fertile land.
The soils vary from sandy loam to clay in texture and are rich in potash but deficient in nitrogen and organic matter.
Generally, the color varies from grey to reddish brown.
These soil are formed of deposits of silt and sand brought down by the rivers flowing from the Himalayas and the Great Indian plateau.
Being young, the soils lack profile development.
Being extremely productive, these soils are most important from the point of view of Indian agriculture.
Based on geographical considerations, this soil can be subdivided into two divisions: newer alluvium (khadar) and older alluvium (Bangar).
Both are different in texture, chemical composition, drainage capacity, and fertility.
The newer alluvium (khadar) is a light friable loam with a mixture of sand and silt. It is found in the river valley, the floodplains, and deltas.
On the other hand, the older alluvium (Bangar) lies on the interfluves(a region between the valleys of adjacent watercourses, especially in a dissected upland).
The higher proportion of clay makes the soil sticky and drainage is often poor.
Almost all crops are grown on these soils.
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