The most important Indian soil type is alluvial soil.
This includes the vast Sutlej, Ganga, and Brahmaputra river regions and the southern peninsula fringes.
For the most fertile land, the alluvial soils cover 64 million hectares.
The soils range in composition from sandy loam to clay and are rich in potash but nitrogen and organic matter deficient.
The color usually ranges between black and reddish-brown.
Such soils are composed of silt and sand deposits carried down by the rivers that rise from the Himalayas and the Great Indian Plateau.
The soils are young and lack the production of profiles.
These soils, being highly fertile, are most significant from an Indian agriculture point of view.
This soil can be subdivided into two classes, depending on geographical considerations: younger alluvium (khadar) and older alluvium (Bangar).
Both are distinctive in terms of structure, chemical composition, ability to drain and fertility.
The older alluvium (khadar) is a soft friable loam with a sand-and-silt mixture. It is located in the valley of the river, in the plains and in the deltas.
The older alluvium (Bangar) on the other hand lies on the interfluves (an area between the valleys of adjacent watercourses, especially in a dissected upland).
The higher portion of clay makes the soil gritty, and therefore poor drainage.
On such soils, nearly all the crops are grown.
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