BALBAN – AD 1266–87

When Balban became the Sultan, his position was not secure.

Many Turkish chiefs were hostile to him; the Mongols were looking forward for an opportunity for attacking the Sultanate, the governors of the distant provinces were also trying to become independent rulers, the Indian rulers were also ready to revolt at the smallest opportunity.

The law and order situation in the area around Delhi and in the Doab region had deteriorated.

Balban ruled in an autocratic manner and worked hard to elevate the position of the Sultan.

He did not allow any noble to assume great power.

Balban was determined to break the power of the Chahalgani.

Balban appointed spies in every department.

He also organised a strong centralized army, both to deal with internal disturbances, and to repel the Mongols.

Balban re-organised the military department (diwan-i-arz) and deployed army in different parts of the country to put down rebellion.

Balban also secured control over Ajmer and Nagaur in eastern Rajputana but his attempts to capture Ranthambore and Gwalior failed.

He appointed his own son Bughra Khan as the governor of Bengal.

He also insisted on the ceremony of sijada (prostration) and paibos (kissing of the monarch’s feet) in the court.


Balban died in AD 1287.

After his death the nobles raised his grandson Kaiquabad to the throne.

He was soon replaced by his son, Kaimurs, who remained on the throne for a little over three months.

During Balban’s reign, Firoz had been the warden of the marches in north-west and had fought many successful battles against the Mongols.

He was called to Delhi as Ariz-i-Mumalik (Minister of War).

In AD 1290 Firoz murdered Kaimurs and seized the throne.

A group of Khalji nobles led by him established the Khalji dynasty.

It brought to an end the so called slave dynasty and Firoz ascended the throne under the title of Jalaluddin Khalji.