BALBAN – AD 1266–87


His position wasn’t safe when Balban became the Sultan.

Most Turkish leaders were hostile to him; the Mongols looked forward to an opportunity to invade the Sultanate, the governors of the distant provinces also sought to become sovereign rulers, and the Indian rulers were also ready to revolt at the slightest opportunity.

The law and order situation had deteriorated in the area around Delhi and in the Doab district.

Balban governed autocratically and worked hard to uplift the Sultan’s status.

He has not allowed any nobleman to take on great strength.

Balban was determined to crack the Chahalgani’s might.

In every department, Balban has appointed spies.

He also assembled a strong unified army, both to deal with internal upheavals and to repel the Mongols.

Balban reorganized the military department (diwan-i-arz) and deployed the army to put down the rebellion in various parts of the world.

Balban also gained power in eastern Rajputana over Ajmer and Nagaur but failed in his attempts to seize Ranthambore and Gwalior.

As governor of Bengal, he appointed his own son Bughra Khan.

He also insisted on the court ritual of sijada (the prostration) and paibos (the kissing of the feet of the monarch).

Balban died in 1287 A.D.

After his death, his grandson Kaiquabad was elevated to the throne by the nobles.

He was soon replaced by his uncle, Kaimurs, who had stayed a little over three months on the throne.

Firoz had been the warden of the marches in the north-west during Balban’s rule and had fought several successful battles against the Mongols.

He had been named as Ariz-i-Mumalik (Minister of War) to Delhi.

Firoz assassinated Kaimurs and took the throne in AD 1290.

The Khalji dynasty was founded by a group of khalji nobles headed by him.

This put the so-called slave dynasty to an end and Firoz under the title of Jalaluddin Khalji ascended the throne.