C. Rajgopalachari Formula – 1944 and Gandhi-Jinnah talks

C. Rajgopalachari Formula (or C. R. formula or Rajaji formula) was a proposal formulated by Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and Indian National Congress on the independence of India from the British.

The League’s position was that the Muslims and Hindus of British India were of two separate nations and hence the Muslims had the right to their own nation when India obtained independence.

The Congress, which included both Hindu and Muslim members, was opposed to the idea of partitioning India.

C. Rajagopalachari, a Congress leader from Madras, devised a proposal for Congress to offer the League the Muslim Pakistan based on plebiscite of all the people in the regions where Muslims made a majority.

The CR formula entailed—–

The League was to endorse the Indian demand for independence and to co-operate with Congress in the formation of the Provisional Interim Government for a transitional period.

At the end of the war, a commission would be appointed to demarcate the districts having a Muslim population in the absolute majority and in those areas plebiscite to be conducted on all inhabitants (including the non-Muslims) on basis of adult suffrage.

All parties would be allowed to express their stance on the partition and their views before the plebiscite.

In the event of separation, a mutual agreement would be entered into for safeguarding essential matters such as defense, communication and commerce and for other essential services.

The transfer of population, if any would be absolutely on a voluntary basis.

The terms of the binding will be applicable only in case of full transfer of power by Britain to the Government of India.


Gandhi-Jinnah talks of 1944

Gandhi was released on 5 May 1944.

After his release, Gandhi proposed talks with Jinnah on his two-nation theory and negotiating on the issue of partition.

The CR formula acted as the basis for the negotiations.

Gandhi and Jinnah met in September 1944 to ease the deadlock.

Gandhi placed the CR formula as his proposal to Jinnah.

Gandhi-Jinnah talks failed after two weeks of negotiations.