The term capital market refers to facilities and institutional arrangements through which long-term funds, both debt and equity, are raised and invested.
Capital market consists of a series of channels through which savings of the community are made available for industrial and commercial enterprises and for the public in general.
It directs these savings into their most productive use leading to growth and development of the economy.
The capital market consists of development banks, commercial banks and stock exchanges.
An ideal capital market is one where finance is available at reasonable cost.
The capital market should also be efficient in respect of the information that it delivers, minimize transaction costs and allocate capital most productively.
The Capital Market can be divided into two parts—
[A] Primary Market [B] Secondary Market
[A] Primary market—
The primary market is also known as the new issues market.
It deals with new securities being issued for the first time.
The essential function of a primary market is to facilitate the transfer of investible funds from savers to entrepreneurs seeking to establish new enterprises or to expand existing ones through the issue of securities for the first time.
The investors in this market are banks, financial institutions, insurance companies, mutual funds and individuals.
A company can raise capital through the primary market in the form of equity shares, preference shares, debentures, loans and deposits.
Funds raised may be for setting up new projects, expansion, diversification, modernisation of existing projects, mergers and takeovers etc.
Methods of Floatation
There are various methods of floating new issues in the primary market:
 Offer through Prospectus—
Offer through prospectus is the most popular method of raising funds by public companies in the primary market.
This involves inviting subscription from the public through issue of prospectus.
A prospectus makes a direct appeal to investors to raise capital, through an advertisement in newspapers and magazines.
The issues may be underwritten and also are required to be listed on at least one stock exchange.
The contents of the prospectus have to be in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act and SEBI disclosure and investor protection guidelines.
 Offer for Sale—
Under this method securities are not issued directly to the public but are offered for sale through intermediaries like issuing houses or stock brokers.
 Private Placement—
Private placement is the allotment of securities by a company to institutional investors and some selected individuals.
It helps to raise capital more quickly than a public issue.
Access to the primary market can be expensive on account of various mandatory and non-mandatory expenses.
Some companies, therefore, cannot afford a public issue and choose to use private placement.
 Rights Issue—
This is a privilege given to existing shareholders to subscribe to a new issue of shares according to the terms and conditions of the company.
The shareholders are offered the ‘right’ to buy new shares in proportion to the number of shares they already possess.
A company proposing to issue capital to the public through the online system of the stock exchange has to enter into an agreement with the stock exchange.
This is called an Initial Public Offer (IPO).
SEBI registered brokers have to be appointed for the purpose of accepting applications and placing orders with the company.
The issuer company should also appoint a registrar to the issue having electronic connectivity with the exchange.
The issuer company can apply for listing of its securities on any exchange other than the exchange through which it has offered its securities.
The lead manager coordinates all the activities amongst intermediaries connected with the issue.
[B] Secondary market—
The secondary market is also known as the stock market or stock exchange.
It is a market for the purchase and sale of existing securities.
It helps existing investors to disinvest and fresh investors to enter the market.
It also provides liquidity and marketability to existing securities.
It also contributes to economic growth by channelizing funds towards the most productive investments through the process of disinvestment and reinvestment.
Securities are traded, cleared and settled within the regulatory framework prescribed by SEBI.
Advances in information technology have made trading through stock exchanges accessible from anywhere in the country through trading terminals.