CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE MUGHALS:
The Emperor was the supreme head of the administration and controlled all military and judicial powers.
The Emperor had the authority to appoint, promote, and remove officials at his pleasure.
For the smooth functioning of the empire, a few departments were created.
Wakil and Wazir
The institution of Wizarat (or Wikalat since both were used interchangeably) was present in some form during the Delhi Sultanate also.
The position of the wazir was revived under the Mughals.
Babur’s and Humayun’s wazir enjoyed great powers.
Diwan-i Kul was the chief diwan.
He was responsible for revenue and finances.
The diwan used to inspect all transactions and payments in all departments and supervised the provincial diwans.
The diwans were to report about state finance to the Emperor on a daily basis.
Mir Bakshi looked after all matters pertaining to the military administration.
The orders of appointment of mansabdars and their salary papers were endorsed and passed by him.
The Sadr-us Sudur was the head of the ecclesiastical department.
His chief duty was to protect the laws of the Shariat.
The office of the Sadr used to distribute allowances and stipends to the eligible persons and religious institutions.
Muhtasibs (censors of public morals) were appointed to ensure the general observance of the rules of morality.
He also used to examine weights and measures and enforce fair prices etc.
The Mir Saman was the officer-in-charge of the royal Karkhanas.
He was responsible for all kinds of purchases and their storage for the royal household.