The Communist Party of India was formed on 25 December 1925 at the first Kanpur Party Conference.

But as per the version of CPI (M), the Communist Party of India was founded in Tashkent, Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 17 October 1920, soon after the Second Congress of the Communist International.

The founding members of the party were M.N. Roy, Evelyn Trent Roy (Roy’s wife), Abani Mukherji, Rosa Fitingof (Abani’s wife), Mohammad Ali (Ahmed Hasan), Mohammad Shafiq Siddiqui, Rafiq Ahmed of Bhopal and M.P.B.T. Aacharya, and Sultan Ahmed Khan of North-West Frontier Province.

The CPI says that there were many communist groups formed by Indians with the help of foreigners in different parts of the world and the Tashkent group was only one of contacts with Anushilan and Jugantar groups in Bengal.

Small communist groups were formed in—–

Bengal (led by Muzaffar Ahmed),

Bombay (led by S.A. Dange),

Madras (led by Singaravelu Chettiar),

United Provinces (led by Shaukat Usmani) and

Punjab and Sindh (led by Ghulam Hussain).