Governor Generals of India
Warren Hastings (1772-86)
In 1769 he Warren Hastings was appointed in Council in Madras.
Two years later he was sent back to Bengal as governor in charge of the company’s affairs there.
Warren Hastings acquired the new title of the governor-general and new responsibilities for supervising other British settlements in India.
These powers had to be shared with four other members of the Supreme Council.
These four were Clavering, Francis, Monson, and Barwell.
Warren Hastings ended the Dual System put forth by Robert Clive.
Payments of tributes to the Delhi Emperor were ended by Warren Hastings.
He introduced settlement of land revenue in 1772 farming outlands to the highest bidder on an annual basis.
He was the conservator of the Asiatic Society.
Following things were happened during Warren Hastings’ tenure:
The Act of 1773 authorized the creation of the Supreme Court in Calcutta.
An administrative structure was formed with district collectors, divisional commissioners in charge of tax and law and order.
First Anglo Maratha War with the treaty of Salbai.
Second Anglo- Mysore War with the treaty of Mangalore.
The Bengal Asiatic Society was founded by William Jones in 1784.
The Calcutta Madarasa was established in 1781.
In 1784 the Calcutta Gazette was published.
Created five custom houses – Calcutta, Hugali, Murshidabad, Dacca and Patna, and duties were lowered to 2 and a half percent payable by all merchants.
Royal treasury shifted from Murshidabad to Calcutta.
Warren Hastings resigned in protest against the Pits India Bill in 1785.
He was accused of the Rohilla war and Nand Kumar’s murder.
From 1788 to 1795, his trial lasted seven years.
He was exonerated for all the charges.
Lord Cornwallis (1786-93)
Lord Cornwallis is the Father of civil services in India.
Prior to Cornwallis’s tenure, company employees were allowed to trade on their own accounts and use company ships to send their own goods back to Europe.
This practice was tolerated when the company was profitable, but by the 1780s the company’s finances were not in good shape.
Lord Cornwallis eliminated the practice, increasing employee salaries in compensation.
In 1790 he introduced circuit courts with company employees as judges and set up a court of appeals in Calcutta.
He introduced the Permanent Settlement system.
Sir John Shore (1793-98)
On 28 October 1793, he succeeded in the Administration.
As governor-general, the duration of Shore’s reign was comparatively uneventful.
His policy was attacked as temporizing and timid.
He showed weakness in dealing with the mutiny of the officers of the Bengal army.
He settled the question of the Oudh succession.
Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)
Aims of Lord Wellesley were expansionism and imperialism.
Another aim was the removal of French influence from India.
Lord Wellesley relied on three strategies to accomplish his strategic goals: the scheme of’ subsidiary alliances,’ an open invasion, and the seizure of formerly subordinated rulers ‘ territories.
Robert Clive and Warren Hastings followed the same policy.
Events occurred during his tenure:
Formation of Madras Presidency after the annexation of the Kingdoms of Tanjore and Carnatic.
Censorship of Press Act 1799 was passed.
Tipu Sultan was defeated in the Fourth Anglo- Mysore War 1799.
Wellesley annexed the South Kanara coast, Wynaad in the south-east, Coimbatore and Darupuram in the south-east besides Shrirangapattanam.
Second Anglo- Maratha war ended with the Treaty of Bassien with Bajirao II.
The company’s geographical acquisitions included the upper doab, all areas north of Jaipur, Jodhpur and Gohud, Baroach, Ahmedabad Fort and Cuttack in Orissa.
Lord Wellesley established the Fort William College in Calcutta in 1800.
He opened Administrative Training College.
During his tenure, Christian missionaries established a printing press at Serampore.
In 1799, the administration of Tanjore, Surat, and Carnatic was taken over by Wellesley.
He introduced the Subsidiary Alliance policy.
Sir George Barlow (1805-07)
Sir George Barlow served as Acting Governor-General of India from 1805 to 1807.
One notable incident of his tenure was the Mutiny of Vellore in 1806 when several English officers were killed by Indian soldiers.
The trade in slavery was ended in 1807 in the British Empire.
Lord Minto (1807-13)
Lord Minto’s rule is famous for a treaty with the Shah of Persia and the Treaty of Amritsar (1809) with Ranjit Singh.
The importation of slaves into India was stopped.
Lord Hastings (1813-23)
Following things occurred during his tenure
Victory in the Gurkha War (1814–1816).
The final conquest of the Marathas in 1818.
Purchase of the island of Singapore in 1819.
He terminated the priorities of Magistrates.
He was the first to appoint Indians to the highest posts of responsibility.
The first vernacular newspaper Samachar Patrika begins to be published during his time.
Lord Amherst (1823-28)
From August 1823 to February 1828, Amherst was Governor-General of India.
He acquired the Malaya peninsula.
The principal events of his government were:
The annexation of Assam.
First Burmese war of 1824.
Cession of Arakan and Tenasserim to the British Empire.
Lord William Bentinck 1828-35
Lord William Bentinck was a man of peace, discipline and of the economy.
He was a liberal reformist who took an active part in the reform movement of England.
He was the first Governor-General who was sympathetic towards the Indian people and also tried to remove the difficulties of the Indians.
He took care of all new administrative reforms and introduced some administrative changes.
He started the practice of appointing Indians in the Company’s service.
Cornwallis had stopped appointing Indians in administrative service.
Bentick appointed Indians in government service.
Now the educated Indians were also appointed to the post of Deputy Magistrate and Deputy Collector.
In the north-west province, Bentick had established a land revenue settlement.
The Provincial Courts of appeal and circuit had been largely responsible for the huge arrears of cases.
The judicial procedure followed in these courts often resulted in delays and uncertainties.
Bentinck abolished these courts.
He established various levels of courts in order to prevent delays in the trial of cases.
He established a Supreme Court in Agra.
The civil and criminal appeals were heard in this court.
A separate Sadar Diwani Adalat and Sadr Nizamat Adalat were set up at Allahabad for the convenience of the people of Delhi and Upper Provinces.
Lord William Bentinck also reduced the severity of the punishment.
Persian was replaced by English as a legal language in higher courts.
Qualified Indians had been nominated as Munsiffs and Sadar Amins.
Bentinck reduced the high salary of civil Servants.
During those days opium was produced in Central India and was sent to China from Karachi.
He changed the trade route from Karachi to Bombay.
Bentick also raised the company’s income by naming Indians to administrative posts.
The Indians were paid less salaries in comparison to their European Counterparts.
On the recommendations Lord Macauley, the decision was taken that the amount which was kept for education should be spent on the education of the Indians and the education be imparted through English medium.
The English language also became the official language and it helped the people of India for the exchange of ideas.
He introduced many social reforms in India.
By the abolition of the systems of ‘Sati’ and the human sacrifice, he freed the society from two of the worst superstitions.
Raja Rammohan Roy the great Indian reformer supported this pioneering Venture of Bentinck.
Bentinck suppressed the system of Thugee.
The Thugee System was fully stopped at the end of 1834.
Sir Charles Metcalf (1835-36)
Lord Minto appointed him for the responsible post of envoy to Ranjit Singh court at Lahore in 1808.
He signed an important treaty to ensure the freedom of the Sikh States between the Sutlej and the Jamuna in 1809.
He was appointed Governor of the Presidency of Agra on 14 November 1834, where he served for more than four months until 20 March 1835.
He is a Liberator of India Press.
Lord Auckland (1836-42)
Following events occurred during Lord Auckland’s tenure:
Tripatriate treaty between the company, Ranjit Singh, and Shah Shuja was signed.
According to the treaty:
Ranjit Singh accepted the company’s mediation in disputes Amirs (sind).
Shah Shuja granted the company its sovereign right over Sind on condition of receiving the tribute’s arrears, the sum decided by the company.
Lord Auckland improved of native schools.
He also expanded the commercial industry of India.
Lord Ellenborough (1842-44)
Following events occurred during Lord Ellenborough’s tenure:
Termination of the Afghan war.
The annexation of Sindh.
The imposition of humiliating treaties on Sindh and Gwalior.
Lord Hardinge (1844-48)
Between 1845 and 1846, the First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company.
The war extended the British territories between the Beas and Sutlej lands.
He prohibited female infanticide and suppression of human sacrifice.
In 1844 rebellion took place in Kolhapur.
English education was made compulsory as a qualification for public services.
Lord Dalhousie (1848-56)
He served as the Governor-General of India from 1848-1856.
Following the conquest of Punjab, Sindh, and Avadh, the company’s frontiers were expanded and India’s military interest shifted to the North.
Dalhousie transferred the Bengal Artillery Headquarters from Calcutta to Meerut.
As he had no confidence in the Indians, a new Gurkha regiment was created.
He was the father of Indian Railways.
In 1853 the first rail line connecting Bombay with Thane was built.
A railway line was built from Calcutta to coal-fields in Raniganj the following year.
Indian Electric Telegraph System was introduced in 1852.
A first telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra covering a distance of 800 miles was completed in 1854.
It was expanded towards Lahore and Peshawar by 1857. In Burma, a line was laid down from Rangoon to Mandalay.
In 1854 post office act was passed. Postage stamps were issued for the first time.
Lord Dalhousie established the Public Works Department.
This department’s chief works were to build roads, bridges, and government buildings.
Irrigational works were undertaken on an extensive scale.
The construction of the Ganges Canal was completed and was inaugurated on April 8, 1854.
Grand Trunk Road was constructed.
He established an engineering college at Roorkee.
Dalhousie abolished female infanticide.
He also prohibited human sacrifice performed by the Khonds of Orissa, Madras, and Central Provinces.
In 1850 Dalhousie passed the Religious Disability Act which enabled the Hindu convert to inherit his ancestral estate.
In addition, in 1855 he also passed the Widow Remarriage Act which legalized Hindu widows marriage.
On the grounds of misgovernment, he annexed Oudh in 1856.
All ports of India were declared free. The harbors of Karachi, Bombay, and Calcutta were developed and lighthouses were also constructed.
Examining universities were established at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1857.
These universities were to hold examinations and award degrees.
Vernacular Schools were opened in the villages and education was imparted to the children through vernacular or regional language of the province in the Lower Classes.
Lord Dalhousie devised the Doctrine of Lapse, an annexation policy. With this, he annexed the States of Satara (1848 A.D.), Jaipur (1849 A.D.), Sambalpur (1849 A.D.), Bahat (1850 A.D.), Udaipur (1852 A.D.), Jhansi (1853 A.D.), and Nagpur (1854 A.D.).
Lord Canning (1858-62)
He was the first viceroy of India.
He established three universities at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay.
With the end of the Company’s rule, it was necessary to reorganize the armed forces and to pursue a new military policy in order to eliminate the possibility of any revolt in the future.
For this purpose, one-third of the armed forces in India were manned by British soldiers.
The artillery was now composed of the British soldiers only.
Indian Council Act of 1861.
Following the act, the imperial Legislative Council came into being.
Indian High Court Act 1861 introduced judicial reforms, and the police department was reorganized.
On the recommendations of Police commission, the 1861 Indian Police Act came into being.
In principle, the Indian Civil Services Act 1861 extended the services to all subjects but only exams in London.
The Indian Civil Services Act 1861 opened services for all subjects theoretically, but exams only in London.
In 1863 Satyendra Nath Tagore became the first Indian to qualify for the Civil Services.
He introduced the portfolio system of the cabinet in the Indian Council Act of 1861.
The Queen’s Proclamation was issued at a durbar in Allahabad on Nov 1, 1858, by which the British crown assumed direct responsibility for the administration of the country.
The proclamation restored the right of the Princes to adopt their heirs.
The Bengal Rent Act removed some of the defects of the Permanent Settlement.
Lord Elgin (1862-63)
He served as the viceroy of India between 1962 to 1963.
He was the first to use Shimla as the Viceroy’s official residence, Peterhoff.
Wahabi movement broke out during his regime. The movement was suppressed.
Sir John Lawrence (1864-69)
Lawrence organized the supplying of the British army in Punjab during the First Sikh War of 1845 to 1846.
Then he served under his brother as the Commissioner of the Jullundur district. His brother was the Governor of the province at the time.
He became a member of the Punjab Board of Administration in 1849, following the Second Sikh War.
As Viceroy, Lawrence pursued a cautious policy, avoiding entanglement in Afghanistan and the Persian Gulf.
It expanded educational possibilities to Indians.
He restricted the usage of indigenous Indians in high civil service positions.
He established High courts at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay in 1865.
He passed the Punjab Tenancy Act (1868).
War was fought with Bhutan in 1864.
Lord Mayo (1869-72)
In 1871, India’s first census was taken by Lord Mayo.
He organized the Statistical Survey of India.
He introduced the State Railway system.
The process of decentralization of finances was started by Mayo’s resolution of 1870.
He greatly reduced military expenditure and other expenses pertaining to the civil administration, implemented salt duty and increased income tax.
He authorized provincial governments to resort to local taxation to balance their budgets.
The Department of Revenue, Agriculture and Commerce was established by Lord Mayo on June 9th, 1871 and he also initiated the Land-improvement Act.
He vigorously advocated the importance of primary education among Indian citizens.
He laid down a set of codified laws to be effectively put into practice for the betterment of the prisoners.
He opened Rajkot College at Kathiawar and the Mayo College at Ajmer for political training of Indian princes.
On 8 February 1872, a prisoner named Sher Ali brutally murdered Lord Mayo.
Lord Northbrook (1872-76)
His tenure witnessed the Kuka revolt in 1872.
He dispossessed Malhar Rao Gaikwad from the throne of Baroda after the suspicious death of the British Resident at Baroda.
The Prince of Wales came to visit India during his tenure.
During his administration, a terrible famine broke out in Bihar (1873-74).
Due to his differences with the British Cabinet Lord Northbrook resigned his office in 1876.
Lord Lytton (1876-1880)
The principal event of his tenure was the Afghan war.
In 1877, Lord Lytton convened a durbar (imperial assembly) in Delhi which was attended by around 84,000 people including princes and titleholders.
He promulgated the Vernacular Press Act in 1878.
The act empowered him to forfeit the press and paper of a local language newspaper publishing ‘seditious material’.
He passed the Vernacular Press Act in 1878, which allowed him to forfeit a local language newspaper publishing ‘seditious content.’
The act resulted in a public outcry in Calcutta led by the Indian Association and Surendranath Banerjee.
In 1876, a famine broke out in south India which claimed between 6.1 million and 10.3 million people.
His introduction of British foreign policies was responsible for raising the severity of the famine.
Lord Lytton appointed a Famine Commission which proposed certain principles to be followed for the help of the famine-stricken.
On the basis of these principles, the later Famine Code was drawn.
He changed the existing policy of duties of cotton and seaborne goods to some extent.
Salt duty uniformity throughout India.
During the administration of Lytton, the Anglo-Russian relations became very bitter.
In 1878, Vernacular Act passed and Arms Act 1878 repealed.
Factory Act was finalized in 1878.
It was he who first suggested establishing the North-West Frontier Province.
He also proposed adopting India’s gold standard.
Lord Ripon (1880-84)
Lord Ripon tried to make the Indian administration democratic in character.
He undertook liberal and public welfare measures. In municipal administration, he gave the Indians the right to self-government.
He established Local Boards and placed the rural administration, public health, construction and maintenance of roads, education, prevention and fighting of epidemics and infectious diseases, etc. in their charge.
These self-governing institutions were given full control over income and expenditure of the areas under them.
Lord Ripon extended the local self-government not only in urban areas but also in rural areas and in place of nominated members arranged for the election of the members, mayors, chairmen, etc.
In this way, he made the local self-government democratic in character.
Some of the members of these institutions were still nominated by the government.
He completed the policy of freedom of trade initiated under Lord Northbrook and Lord Lytton.
He removed all goods tariffs except salt, wine, arms, and ammunition.
The tariff duty of salt was considerably reduced.
Lord Ripon repealed the Vernacular Press Act 1878.
Under Sir William Hunter’s chairmanship, Lord Ripon established a commission to review education development under the new policies adopted according to Wood’s 1854 dispatch.
In order to prevent the eviction of the ryots by the zamindars, Ripon prepared a Tenancy Act which was passed under the next governor-general.
In 1881 Ripon passed the Factory Act prohibiting employment of children between seven and twelve years of age for more than nine hours per day in any factory.
He modified Permanent Settlement.
Lord Dufferin (1884-88)
He supported the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.
Dufferin handed back Gwalior to the Sindia with adequate compensation which proved his liberal attitude towards the native States.
In 1885 he passed the Bengal Tenancy Act by which he prohibited an increase in the land revenue ryots or their wrongful eviction by the zamindars.
In 1887 he passed a similar Tenancy Act for Punjab. Third Anglo-Burmese War started in 1885.
Upper Burma was conquered in 1886, and the Afghan Northern frontier was delimited.
Allahabad University was incorporated.
He introduced a number of new taxes such as salt tax and petroleum tax.
Lord Lansdowne (1888-94)
During Lord Lansdowne’s administration the price of silver fell considerably in the international market.
Fall of the value of silver naturally brought about terrible economic distress in India.
Factory Act of 1891 was passed.
Age of Consent Act 1891, which forbade the marriage of girls below 12, was passed.
Lord Elgin-II (1894-99)
In order to improve the finances of the government, Elgin levied duties on all imports.
But in order to protect the interests of the English cloth merchants, Elgin levied excise duties on Indian made cloth.
In 1895 all armies of Bengal, Bombay, and Madras were brought under the same organization and placed under one single Commander-in-Chief.
By the Durand Agreement of 1893, a formal British protectorate was declared over Chitral and Gilgit.
Railways were constructed up to the north-west frontiers. In 1896 famine took place all over India.
In 1897, plague broke out at Bombay.
Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
Following events occurred during his tenure:
In 1899, the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act was passed.
Northwest Frontier Province was created in 1900.
Punjab land alienation act was passed in 1901.
In matters of revenue settlement and revenue collection Curzon introduced the principle of taking into fullest consideration the condition of the ryots.
He set up a department for agriculture and placed it under the jurisdiction of the Agriculture Inspector General.
He passed the Co-operative Societies’ Act of 1904.
The father of co-operative credit in India was Sir Frederick Nicholson, a Madras civilian.
He established the Department of Archaeology. In 1902 Curzon set up a University Commission with widest powers of inquiry into, all aspects of the university administration.
Indian University Act was passed in 1904.
The Universities were not to be merely examining bodies but also institutions of higher teaching and research.
For the improvement of trade and commerce, Curzon set up a new department and placed it under a high official.
For the benefit of the low-income group Curzon specified a minimum exemption of income from income tax.
For the sons of the rulers of the native States, Curzon arranged for military training by forming an Imperial Cadet Corps. Bengal partition took place in 1905.
Lord Minto II (1905-10)
Main events during his tenure are:
Partition of Bengal came into force on 16th Oct 1906.
Anti-partition and Swadeshi movements.
Foundation of Muslim League in 1906.
The number of elected members in the central and provincial legislatures was increased by Morley-Minto Reforms in 1909.
The reforms also introduced the system of communal electorates.
The Victoria Memorial Hall was established in 1906 in Calcutta.
Arundel Committee, a committee on political reforms, submitted its report in Oct 1906.
Indian Decentralization Committee was appointed in 1907 under Sir Charles Hobhouse.
The Seditious Meeting Act was passed on May 11, 1907.
Explosives Substances Act and Newspaper Act were passed on June 8th, 1908.
In 1910 Press Act was passed.
The Department of Education was established in 1910 under the autonomous member of the Executive Council of the Viceroy.
Lord Hardinge (1910-15)
Main events during his tenure are:
During the administration of Lord Hardinge, George V and his Queen-Empress Mary came to visit India (1911).
The famous Delhi Durbar was convened on that occasion in which it was decided to transfer the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi.
The most important decision of the Durbar was the annulment of the Bengal Partition of 1905.
In the ceremonial procession at the time of entry into the new capital of India—Delhi, a bomb was thrown on Hardinge.
Lord Hardinge was injured, his life was saved but one of his attendants lost his life.
Rashbehari Bose threw the bomb and he made a safe escape.
Towards the end of the administration of Lord Hardinge the First World War began.
In 1912 Delhi was made a province.
In 1911, Islington Commission on Civil Services was created.
Lord Chelmsford (1915-21)
Main events during his tenure are:
Prices rose as a result of the First World War.
Fall in the production due to labor unrest.
Besides the demand for constitutional reforms, revolutionary terrorism also added to the political unrest of the time.
In order to suppress all this, the British government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 by which the government assumed the power to imprison persons without trial.
Further, anybody might be punished with transportation for life, the Press was gagged, the executive department was authorized to try political offenders without the help of the jury.
Gandhiji organized a passive resistance movement in protest.
In Punjab, the movement became very strong.
The citizens of Amritsar assembled in an enclosed place called Jalianwalla Bagh in defiance of a prohibitory order.
Under orders of General Dyer, the military fired 1600 rounds of ammunition on the unarmed people killing even according to official estimates 379 persons and injuring 1200.
Martial law was proclaimed in Punjab.
During the administration of Lord Chelmsford Amir Habib Ullah of Afghanistan was assassinated and his son Aman Ullah succeeded as Amir.
Under Chelmsford’s administration the reform Act of 1919 on the basis of the Montagu-Chelmsford report, was passed.
In 1920 Aligarh Muslim University was founded.
Central Advisory Board on education was founded in 1920.
Lord Reading (1921-26)
After Lord Chelmsford Lord Reading came as the governor-general and viceroy of India.
The most important event of his period of administration was the non-co-operation movement of Gandhiji.
Imprisonment of Mahatma Gandhi, enhancement of salt tax despite the opposition of the Central Legislature made Lord Reading very unpopular with the people of India.
Lord Reading repealed the Rowlett Act and withdrew tariff duties on cloth.
He also conceded the right of the Indians to be appointed as King’s Commissioned Officers in the army.
Besides, he threw Sandhurst military college of England open to the Indians for military training.
In 1923 Civil Marriage Bill was passed.
The Lee Commission, a Civil Services commission, submitted its report in 1924.
In 1925 Devdasi system was abolished by an Act.
V.J Patel elected the first Indian President of the Legislative Assembly on 22nd August 1925.
Lord Irwin (1926-31)
His reign was characterized by a period of tremendous political instability.
The exclusion of Indians from the Simon Commission examining the country’s readiness for self-government provoked serious violence.
Incidents included protests against the Simon Commission Report:
the Nehru Report
the All-Parties Conference
the Muslim League leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s 14 points
the Civil Disobedience Movement launched by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi
the Round Table Conferences
Lord Willingdon (1931-34)
On 1st December 1931, Ramsay Macdonald announces the decision to constitute NWFP into a governor’s province and Sindh was made a separate province.
In 1932 Poona Pact was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar.
The Third Round Table Conference took place from 7th November to 24th December 1932.
Congress Socialist Party was formed by Acharya Narendra Dev and Jai Prakash Narayan.
All India Kisan Sabha was formed in 1936.
Gandhiji started Harijan Seva in 1934.
Lord Linlithgow (1936-43)
He was Governor-General and Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943.
First general elections were held in 1937.
Ministries of Congress were formed in seven of the 11 provinces.
Congress ministries resigned after the outbreak of World War II in 1939.
Subhas Chandra Bose resigned from Congress membership and formed the Forward Block in 1939.
In Oct 1937, Gandhiji formulated Wardha Educational Scheme.
Individual Civil Disobedience Movement started in 1940.
Cripps Mission came to India in 1942 to grant India a Dominion status and to form a Constituent Assembly.
On 11 August the Quit India Movement started.
Lord Wavell (1943- 1947)
Main events during his tenure are:
Visit of King George V.
Shimla Conference begins on 25th June 1945.
In January 1946, Wavell announced the plan of government to create aa executive council political leaders.
The Cabinet Mission was declared in March of 1946 by Attlee and the mission arrived in Delhi on 24 March 1946.
Wavell invited Nehru to establish an interim government on 6 August 1946.
On 16th August 1946, the Muslim League begins the Direct Action Day.
All India Congress Committee accepted Provincial Grouping under the Cabinet Mission Plan on 5th January 1947.
On 20th February 1947, Attlee announces the end of British rule in India.
Lord Mountbatten (1947-48)
Main events during his tenure are:
Mountbatten rescheduled the partition date from August 1948 to August 15, 1947.
On 2nd June 1947 Mountbatten Plan was announced.
Mountbatten announced the transfer of power on 15 August.
India Independence Bill was introduced in the House of Commons on 4th July 1947.
On the 6th July, referendum took place in NWFP boycotted by Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
On 11th August 1947, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan meets and elects Jinnah as President.
On 15th August 1947, India became independent.
C Rajagopalachari (1948-50)
Lord Mountbatten was on leave in England to attend the marriage of Princess Elizabeth to Mountbatten’s nephew Prince Philip.
In the absence of him, C. Rajagopalachari served as Acting Governor-General of India from 10 until 24 November 1947.
Mountbatten was impressed with his abilities and made Rajagopalachari his second choice to succeed him after Vallabhbhai Patel, when he was to leave India in June 1948.
When Nehru disagreed with Mountbatten’s first choice, Rajagopalachari was ultimately elected as the Governor-General.
C Rajagopalachari served as Governor-General of India from June 1948 until 26 January 1950.
Not only was he India’s last governor-general but he was the first Indian national ever to hold the office.