Components of Biosphere abiotic, biotic, energy

The biosphere has three basic components.

These are

[A] abiotic (physical and inorganic) components

[B] biotic (organic) components

[C] energy components


[A] Abiotic Components 

These components of the biosphere broadly consist of all non-living elements which are essential for the survival of all living organisms.

These are

[1] lithosphere (the solid part of the earth crust),

[2] atmosphere and

[3] hydrosphere

Mineral nutrients, certain gases, and water are the three basic requirements of organic life.

Soils and sediments constitute the chief reservoir of mineral nutrients.

The atmosphere constitutes the chief reservoir of gases essential for organic life.

Ocean constitutes the chief reservoir of liquid water, where all these three reservoirs intermingle and that area becomes the most fertile area for organic life.

The upper layer of the soil and shallow parts of the ocean constitute the most important areas, box sustaining organic life.

The upper layer of soil permits easy penetration of gases and percolation of moisture.

Shallow parts of oceans, allow penetration of sunlight, the intermingling of dissolved gases and nutrients from the land surface and ocean bottoms.


[B] Biotic Components 

Plants, animals and human beings including microorganisms constitute the three biotic components of the environment.

In a way, these can be called as the three sub-systems.


Plants are most important among biotic components.

They are the only primary producers as they produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis and hence are called autotrophs.

Plants produce all kinds of organic matter and help in the cycling and recycling of organic matters and nutrients.



While plants are the primary producers, the animals are the main consumers.

Therefore, animals are heterotrophs.

There are three main functions of animals:

— to use organic matter made available by plants as food.

— to transform the food into energy and

— to utilize the energy for growth and development.


These consist of a variety of micro-bacteria, fungi, etc.

Their numbers are unlimited and are popularly known as decomposers.

These organisms decompose the dead plants and animals and other organic matters.

It is through this process they obtain their food.

Through this process of decomposition, they differentiate and separate the complex organic matter.


[C] Energy 

This is the third and vital component of the biosphere without which life could not have been possible on the Earth.

It is essential for the generation and reproduction of all biological life on this planet.

All organisms in the biosphere use energy to work and also to convert one form of energy into another.

Sun is the major source of energy without which we cannot think about the existence of the biosphere.


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