Components of Biosphere abiotic, biotic, energy

Components of Biosphere

The biosphere has three basic components.

These are

[A] Abiotic (physical and inorganic) components

[B] Biotic (organic) components

[C] Energy components


[A] Abiotic Components 

These components of the biosphere broadly consist of all non-living elements which are essential for the survival of all living organisms.

These are:

[1] lithosphere

[2] atmosphere and

[3] hydrosphere

The three basic requirements of organic life are mineral nutrients, various gases, and water.

Soils and sediments are the main reservoirs of mineral nutrients.

The atmosphere is the principal source of organic gases, which are essential for organic life.

The ocean is the most fertile area for organic life.

The most significant areas are the upper layer of the soil and the deepest parts of the ocean, that support organic life.

The upper layer of soil permits easy penetration of gases and percolation of moisture.

Shallow parts of oceans, allow penetration of sunlight, the intermingling of dissolved gases and nutrients from the land surface and ocean bottoms.


[B] Biotic Components

Plants, animals and human beings including microorganisms constitute the three biotic components of the environment.


Plants are the most important among biotic components.

Plants produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis and hence are called autotrophs.

They are the primary producers.

Plants produce organic matter of all kinds.

They help in the storage and processing of organic matter and nutrients.


While plants are the primary producers, the main consumers are the animals.

Therefore, animals are heterotrophs.

Animals use organic matter which is made available as food by plants.

They transform the food into energy.


These consist of a variety of micro-bacteria, fungi, etc.

Their numbers are unlimited and are popularly known as decomposers.

Such organisms are breaking down dead plants and animals, and other organic matter and through this process, they obtain their food.

Through this process of decomposition, the complex organic matter is differentiated and separated.


[C] Energy Components

This is one of the essential component of the biosphere without which life could not have been possible on the Earth.

It is necessary for any biological life on this planet to be created and reproduced.

In the biosphere, all organisms use energy to function and transform one energy source into another.

Sun is the main source of energy.


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