Himalayan Drainage System
The Himalayan drainage system mainly includes the Ganga, the Indus, and the Brahmaputra river basins.
Rivers of this system are perennial.
These rivers are fed both by melting of snow and precipitation.
These rivers pass through the giant gorges.
These rivers also form V-shaped valleys, rapids, and waterfalls in their mountainous course.
Depositional features like flat valleys, ox-bow lakes, flood plains, braided channels, and deltas near the river mouth are formed by these rivers.
In the Himalayan reaches, the course of these rivers is highly tortuous.
These rivers display a strong meandering tendency over the plains.
These rivers shift their courses frequently.
River Kosi, also known as the ‘sorrow of Bihar’, has been notorious for frequently changing its course. The Kosi brings a huge quantity of sediments from its upper reaches and deposits it in the plains. The course gets blocked, and consequently, the river changes its course.
The rivers of this system are young and youthful, active and deep in the valleys.
These rivers have large basins.
These rivers are antecedent and lead to the dendritic drainage pattern in plains.
Rivers of this system are originated in Himalayan Mountain covered with glaciers.
The channels of these rivers in the upper courses form gorges, waterfalls, and rapids.
These rivers transport a huge quantity of sediments.
River capturing occurs in this system. In their mountainous course, they do river capturing.
These rivers make only deltas. e.g. The Sundarbans delta.
Peninsular Drainage System
The Peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan one.
This is evident from the broad, largely-graded shallow valleys, and the maturity of the rivers.
Rivers of this system are not perennial.
These rivers have a fixed course.
The Western Ghats act as the water divide between the major Peninsular Rivers.
These rivers discharge their water in the Bay of Bengal and as small rivulets joining the Arabian Sea.
Most of the major Peninsular Rivers except Narmada and Tapi flow from west to east.
The Narmada and the Tapi flow through the rift valley.
The Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa, the Ken, the Son, originating in the northern part of the Peninsula belong to the Ganga river system.
The other major river systems of the peninsular drainage are – the Mahanadi the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Kaveri.
The rivers of this system are old rivers with a graded profile.
These rivers, except the Godavari, have relatively small basins.
These rivers form trellis, radial and rectangular drainage patterns.
Rivers of this system are originated in the peninsular plateau and central highland
The channels of these rivers are broad.
These are slow-moving rivers.
They have a low carrying capacity.
They make shallow meanders.
These rivers make deltas (Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri ) and estuaries like Narmada and Tapi.
- INDIA – PHYSICAL – LOCATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES OF INDIA
- Physiographic Divisions of India
- The Himalayas- Himadri, Himachal and Siwalik
- The Trans-Himalayan Ranges
- The Great Northern Plains
- The Great Indian Plateau – Deccan Plateau, The Central Highlands
- Coastal Plains – East Coastal and West Coastal
- Indian Islands – Andaman and Lakshadweep
- Drainage System of North and South India