Himalayan drainage system
The Himalayan drainage system mainly consists of the basins of the Ganga, the Indus, and the Brahmaputra River.
Rivers of this system are perennial.
The melting of snow and precipitation feed these rivers.
These rivers pass through the giant gorges.
In their mountainous course, these rivers also form V-shaped valleys, rapids, and waterfalls.
Depositional features like flat valleys, ox-bow lakes, flood plains, braided channels, and deltas near the river mouth are formed by these rivers.
In the Himalayan reaches, the course of these rivers is highly tortuous.
These rivers display a strong meandering tendency over the plains.
These rivers shift their courses frequently.
River Kosi, also known as the ‘Sorrow of Bihar,’ is infamous for changing its course regularly.
The Kosi brings a huge quantity of sediments from its upper reaches and deposits it in the plains.
Because of this course gets blocked, and consequently, the river changes its course.
The rivers of this system are young and youthful, active and deep in the valleys.
These rivers have large basins.
Rivers of the Himalayan drainage system are antecedent.
These rivers form the dendritic drainage pattern in plains.
these rivers form the dendritic drainage pattern in plains.
The channels of these rivers in the upper courses form gorges, waterfalls, and rapids.
These rivers transport a huge quantity of sediments.
River capturing occurs in this system.
In their mountainous course, they do river capturing.
These rivers make only deltas. e.g. The Sundarbans delta.
Peninsular Drainage System
The drainage system of the Peninsula is older than that of the Himalayan.
This can be seen from the broad, deep, shallow valleys and the river maturity.
Rivers of this system are not perennial.
These rivers have a fixed course.
The Western Ghats is the water divide between the Peninsular Rivers.
These rivers discharge their water in the Bay of Bengal and as small rivulets joining the Arabian Sea.
With the exception of Narmada and Tapi, most of the major peninsular rivers flow from west to east.
The Narmada and the Tapi flow through the rift valley.
The Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa, the Ken, the Son from the northern part of the peninsula.
These rivers belong to the Ganga River system.
The Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri are the other important river systems of peninsular drainage.
Old rivers with a graded profile are the rivers of this system.
Most rivers have relatively small basins, with the exception of the Godavari.
These rivers form trellis, radial and rectangular drainage patterns.
Rivers of this system are originated in the peninsular plateau and central highland.
The channels of these rivers are broad.
These are slow-moving rivers.
They have a low carrying capacity.
They make shallow meanders.
These rivers make deltas (Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri ) and estuaries like Narmada and Tapi.
- INDIA – PHYSICAL – LOCATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES OF INDIA
- Physiographic Divisions of India
- The Himalayas- Himadri, Himachal and Siwalik
- The Trans-Himalayan Ranges
- The Great Northern Plains
- The Great Indian Plateau – Deccan Plateau, The Central Highlands
- Coastal Plains – East Coastal and West Coastal
- Indian Islands – Andaman and Lakshadweep
- Drainage System of North and South India