Distribution of Minerals and Energy Resources in India:
The distribution of mineral and energy resources is uneven.
It’s because occurrence of mineral resources are associated with certain types of geological formation.
Coal deposits are mostly associated with Gondwana system, Dharwar and Cuddapah systems contain resources of major metallic minerals like copper, lead, zinc etc and major non-metallic minerals like limestone, dolomite, gypsum, calcium, sulphate etc are found in cuddapah and upper vindhyan system.
If we look at the distribution in terms of region, then it has been found that much of the peninsular region west of a line from Mangalore to Kanpur has very little mineral wealth.
East of the line which covers the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal.
These states have the major reserve of metallic minerals like iron, bauxite, manganese etc and non-metallic minerals like coal, limestone, dolomite, gypsum etc. Most of these mineral bearing states are located in the peninsular plateau region of India.
Within peninsular plateau region of India the following three mineral belts can be demarcated.
 The North eastern plateaus
It covers chhotanagpur plateau, Orissa plateau and eastern Andhra plateau.
This belt contains rich deposits of a variety of minerals, specially used for metallurgical industries.
Minerals found in this region are — Iron ore, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Limestone, Dolomite, Copper, Uranium, Thorium, and Phosphate.
This region has also rich deposits coal, along the river valleys of Damodar, Mahanadi, and Son.
 South-western plateaus
This region extends over Karnataka plateau and adjoining Tamil Nadu plateau and is rich in metallic minerals particularly in iron ore, manganese and bauxite and in some non-metallic minerals.
All the three gold mines of India are found in this region.
However, coal is not found in this plateau region.
 North-western region
This belt extends from gulf of Khambhat in Gujarat to the Aravalli range in Rajasthan.
Petroleum and natural gas are principal resources of this belt.
Deposits of other minerals are small and scattered.
However, it is known for reserves and production of several non-ferrous metals particularly copper, silver, lead, and Zinc.
Upper Brahmaputra valley is a significant petroleum producing area.
Kerala possesses enormous concentration of heavy mineral sands.