First Anglo-Maratha War
The First Anglo-Maratha War triggered off because the English got themselves involved in the domestic affairs of the Marathas with the motive of deriving certain privileges.
Peshwa Madhav Rao died in 1772 and was succeeded by his younger brother Narayan Rao.
Narayan Rao’s uncle Raghoba wanted to become the Peshwa and got him murdered.
The Maratha chiefs took up the cause of Madhav Rao the son of Narayan Rao.
Ragobha approached the British for help and signed the treaty of Surat hoping to gain the coveted Gaddi with the help of English subsidiary troops.
Mahadji Shinde and Tukojirao Holkar commanded the Maratha army.
In this battle, the British were badly defeated.
Treaty of Surat
The Treaty of Surat (1775) was a treaty by which Raghunathrao agreed to cede Salsette and Bassein Fort to the English, in consideration of being himself restored to Poona.
Warren Hastings signed the treaty on behalf of the British.
Treaty of Purandar 1776
British troops under the command of Colonel Keating left Surat on March 15, 1775, for Pune.
But they were checked by Haripant Phadke at Adas and were totally defeated on May 18, 1775.
Warren Hastings estimated that direct actions against Pune would be detrimental.
Therefore, the Supreme Council of Bengal condemned the Treaty of Surat, sending Colonel Upton to Pune to annul it and make a new treaty with the regency.
An agreement between Upton and the ministers of Pune called Treaty of Purandar was signed on March 1, 1776.
The Treaty of Purandhar (1 March 1776) annulled that of Surat, Raghunath Rao was pensioned and his cause abandoned, but the revenues of Salsette and Broach districts were retained by the British.
Treaty of Wadgaon
The British Forces surrendered at Wadgaon in 1779, on January 12.
4 days later on January 16, the British signed a treaty of Wadgaon as per the terms of the Marathas.
As per this treaty, the British relinquished all the territories acquired by the East India Company in Western India since 1773 and promised to pay Rs. 41 thousand as indemnity to Mahadji Scindia.
Raghunathrao was captured and imprisoned.
The British Governor-General in Bengal, Warren Hastings, rejected the treaty on the grounds that the Bombay officials had no legal power to sign it and ordered Goddard to secure British interests in the area.
Treaty of Salbai
This treaty was signed on 17 May 1782 and was ratified by Hastings in June 1782 and by Nana Fadnis in February 1783.
The treaty ended the First Anglo-Maratha War.
The company was to restore all territories captured by them including Bassein to the Peshwa and return to him and the Gaikwad territories taken in Gujarat.
Salsette and its three neighboring islands, as well as the city of Broach, were to remain with the British.
Territories granted earlier to the Company by Raghunath Rao would be restored to the Marathas.
The Company was not to afford Raghunath Rao any support or protection.
The Peshwa was to make Haider Ali relinquish his claims to British territory.
Both parties were to abstain from attacking each other’s allies while the Peshwa would neither support any other European power nor allow it to settle in his dominions without the English consent.
The Company’s trade privileges were to be restored.
The Treaty secured peace with Marathas for 20 years.