Gender Inequality Index (GII)

The Gender Inequality Index is an inequality index. It measures gender inequalities in three important aspects of human development—

[1] reproductive health, measured by maternal mortality ratio and adolescent birth rates;

[2] empowerment, measured by proportion of parliamentary seats occupied by females and proportion of adult females and males aged 25 years and older with at least some secondary education; and

[3] economic status, expressed as labour market participation and measured by labour force participation rate of female and male populations aged 15 years and older.

The GII is built on the same framework as the IHDI — to better expose differences in the distribution of achievements between women and men.

It measures the human development costs of gender inequality, thus the higher the GII value the more disparities between females and males and the more loss to human development.