Government of India Act 1935


After the conclusion of the Third Round Table Conference in London a White Paper was issued in March 1933.

On the basis of this paper a new constitution of India came into being which was approved by both of the Houses of the Parliament.

It became the Government of India Act in 2nd August, 1935.

 

Provisions of the Act –

This Act established a “Federation of India” made up of British Indian Provinces (Governor’s Province and Commissioner’s Province) and Indian states.

Dyarchy, rejected by the Simon Commission, was provided for in the Federal Executive.

The British Government, in the person of the Secretary of State for India, through the Governor-General of India – Viceroy of India, would continue to control India’s financial obligations, defence, foreign affairs and the British Indian Army.

The other Federal subjects would be administered by the Governor-General with the assistance and advice of a Council of Ministers to be appointed by him and to hold office during his pleasure and to be responsible to the Federal Legislature.

The Federal Legislature was constituted of two Houses, the Council of State and the Federal Assembly.

The Council of state was to be a permanent body with one-third of its membership being vacated and renewed triennially.

It was to consist of 156 elected members of British India and not more than 104 from the Indian states (to be nominated by the rulers concerned).

The Federal Assembly whose duration was fixed for five years was to consist of 250 representatives of British India and not more than 125 members from the Indian states.

Two new provinces Sindh and Orissa were created.

Burma and Aden were separated from India.

The federal court was established at Calcutta.

Reserve Bank of India was established.

One- third Muslim representation in the Central Legislature was guaranteed.

Reforms were introduced in the North West Frontier Province.