Green Revolution

The eight years between the commencements of the Third-Five Year and fourth- Five Year Plans 1961-69 were the year of great significance for Indian agriculture.

During this period a new strategy of agricultural production was introduce first in 1960-61 as a pilot project, in some districts of Punjab and was subsequently extended to other districts of the country.

The core of this strategy was the use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds, application of chemical fertilizers and extension of adequate and assured irrigation.

It also made it imperative to use pesticides and insecticides and improved agricultural implements to enhance agricultural productivity.

It also became essential to make provision of cheap credit, storage and marketing facilities, crops preservation measures, and support price for agricultural products.

Due to these measures, food grains production surged in India and country became self sufficient in food grains.

This achievement of Indian farmers is called ‘Green Revolution’.

The term Green Revolution was used first in 1968 by Dr. William Gadd of the U.S.A.

The Green revolution in India has been successful mainly in Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh because these regions had advantage of assured irrigation, adequate supply of fertilizers, HYV seeds, and modern agricultural implements at subsidised rate.

The majority of farmers and the areas in the country have not been benefited by it, resulting in ever increasing inequalities in agricultural and rural development in the country.

Due to increased application of chemical fertilizer and over irrigation, soils in the areas of the Green Revolution have been degraded in the form of salinity and water logging.

Excessive concentrations of chemical fertilizers and pesticides contaminate the streams and the ground water with serious health hazards for the people.

Fish are not found in the paddy fields anymore and the water table has decreased drastically in these areas.

Green Revolution means rapid increase in farm production per unit area through the application of

[1] high yielding seeds

[2] chemical fertilizers and

[3] assured and adequate irrigation