Lord Ripon the then Governor-General of India appointed the first Indian Education Commission (Hunter Commission 1882)on February 3, 1882, under the Chairmanship of Sir William Hunter, a member of the Executive Council of Viceroy.
This Commission is popularly known as Hunter Commission.
The principal object of the Commission was to inquire about the state of elementary or primary education in India.
Recommendations made by the Commission
The Hunter Commission apart from the state of primary education also emphasized the condition of secondary education prevailed in India during the 19th century.
For secondary education, a principle was laid down by the commission.
According to the commission, there should be two divisions – literary education leading to the Entrance examination of the university and the other is the practical kind of vocational training.
The Vocational training would lead the students to build up their careers in the commercial field.
In selecting persons to fill the lowest offices under Government Preference be always given to candidates who can read and write.
The government may establish secondary schools in exceptional cases, in the place where they may be required in the interests of people, and where the people themselves may not be advanced or wealthy enough to establish such schools for themselves even with a grant-in-aid.
The commission brought out inadequate facilities available for female education in the country.
District and Municipal Boards were directed to assign specific funds to primary education.
THE HUNTER COMMISSION -1919
On 14 October 1919, after orders issued by the Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, the Government of India announced the formation of a committee of inquiry into the events in Punjab.
Referred to as the Disorders Inquiry Committee, it was later more widely known as the Hunter Commission.
It was named after the name of chairman, Lord William Hunter.
Lord William Hunter was assisted by five Englishmen and four Indians.
The stated purpose of the commission was to “investigate the recent disturbances in Bombay, Delhi, and Punjab, about their causes, and the measures taken to cope with them“.
The report of the Hunter Commission concluded that the Indian gathering was not the result of a pre-arranged conspiracy.
It asserted that the rioting in Amritsar had turned into rebellion.
The declaration of martial law was viewed as justifiable and that its application was, in the main, not oppressive.
The report concluded that General Dyer was justified in firing on the mob, though notice should have been given and its duration shortened.