Indian Geography Notes


Indian Geography Notes

 

TYPES OF ROCK

IGNEOUS ROCKS                                                           

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS      

METAMORPHIC ROCKS                                

ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ROCKS   

 

WEATHERING                                               

PHYSICAL WEATHERING 

CHEMICAL WEATHERING        

GRADATION           

FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION        

SOIL EROSION         

 

VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL MOVEMENTS OF THE EARTH

VOLCANOES

Landforms of Glacier

 

MOUNTAINS

Fold Mountains

Block Mountains

Volcanic Mountains

Residual Mountains

The economic significance of mountains

 

 

PLATEAUS

Intermontane Plateau

Piedmont Plateau

Continental plateau

 

PLAINS

Structural plains

Erosional Plains

Depositional plains

The economic significance of plains

 

 

OCEAN BASINS

Continental Shelf

Continental Slope

Abyssal Plain

Submarine Ridges

Seamounts and Guyots

The Ocean Deeps

Temperature of ocean waters

Salinity of the ocean waters

Movements of ocean waters

Spring and neap tides

Ocean Currents

Currents of the Atlantic Ocean

Currents of the Pacific Ocean

Currents of the Indian Ocean

Effects of Ocean Currents

Importance of Ocean for Humans

 

Structure of the atmosphere

Troposphere

Stratosphere

Mesosphere

Ionosphere

Exosphere

INSOLATION -Solar Radiation

Heating and cooling of the atmosphere

Heat Budget

Horizontal Distribution of Temperature on the Earth

 

Inversion of Temperature on the Earth

Earth’s Atmosphere-Vertical Distribution of Air Pressure

Earth’s Atmosphere-Horizontal Distribution of Air Pressure

Pressure Belts

The Equatorial Low Pressure Belt

The Sub-tropical High Pressure Belts

The Sub-polar low Pressure Belts

Winds-Pressure Gradient and the Coriolis Effect

Planetary Winds – The Easterlies, The Westerlies, Polar Easterlies

Periodic Winds – Monsoon Winds

Local Winds

Land and Sea Breezes

The Mountain and Valley Breezes

Hot Winds – Loo, Foehn, Chinook

Tropical and Temperate Cyclones

 

 

HUMIDITY – Absolute and Relative

EVAPORATION

CONDENSATION

Forms of condensation – Dew, Frost, Smog, Mist and Fog

PRECIPITATION – Hail, Sleet, Snowfall, Drizzle and Rainfall

TYPES OF RAINFALL – Convectional, Orographic, Convergence

DISTRIBUTION OF PRECIPITATION

Factors Affecting Rainfall Distribution

 

 

FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE

The Thermal Zones – Torrid, Temperate, Frigid

CLIMATIC TYPES

 

 

Ecology and Eco System

Flow of Energy in the Ecosystem

Food chain/cycle

Natural / Bio-geochemical Cycles

Types of Eco-Systems – Terrestrial, Aquatic

Green House Effects and Global Warming

Ozone Layer Depletion

Acid Rain

 

INDIA – PHYSICAL – LOCATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES OF INDIA

Physiographic Divisions of India

The Himalayas- Himadri, Himachal and Siwalik

The Trans-Himalayan Ranges

The Great Northern Plains

The Great Indian Plateau – Deccan Plateau, The Central Highlands

Coastal Plains – East Coastal and West Coastal

Indian Islands – Andaman and Lakshadweep

Drainage System of North and South India

Difference Between Himalayan And Peninsular Drainage System

 

 

Factors Influencing the Climate of India

Influence of Location and Latitudinal Extent on the Climate of India

Influence of Distance from the Sea on the Climate of India

Influence of the Northern Mountain Ranges on the Climate of India

Influence of Northeast and Southwest Monsoon Winds on the Climate of India

Influence of Upper-Air Circulation – Westerly Jet stream and Easterly Jet stream

Influence of Western Disturbances and Tropical Cyclones on the Climate of India

Influence of El – Nino on the Climate of India

Influence of Southern Oscillation on the Climate of India

The Concept and Mechanism of Monsoon

 

SEASONS IN INDIA

The Cold Weather Season in India

The Hot Weather Season in India

The Advancing Southwest Monsoon Season

The Retreating Southwest Monsoon Season

 

DISASTERS IN INDIA

Difference between Natural Hazard and Disaster

FLOODS – Flood prone areas

Flood control measures

DROUGHT- Causes and Impact

Drought prone area program

LANDSLIDES

EARTHQUAKE – A NATURAL DISASTER

CYCLONES

 

LAND RESOURCE IN INDIA

Land Use and Land Problems in India

SOIL RESOURCES IN INDIA

MAJOR SOIL TYPES

Alluvial Soils

Black Soils (Regur)

Red Soils

Laterite Soils

Desert Soils

Mountain Soils

Soil Erosion and its Conservation

 

NATURAL VEGETATION IN INDIA

Moist Tropical Evergreen and Semi-evergreen Vegetation

Moist Tropical Deciduous Vegetation

Dry Tropical Vegetation

Tidal Vegetation

Mountain Vegetation

 

WATER RESOURCES IN INDIA

Water Budget

Utility of Water

Means of Irrigation – Wells, Canals, Tanks

Major River Valley Projects of India

Watershed Development

River Linkages

 

Types of Farming

Dry Farming

Wet Farming

Irrigated Farming

Subsistence Farming

Shifting Cultivation

Terrace Cultivation

Plantation Agriculture

Eco-Farming or Organic Farming

Fishing in India

 

Agro-Climatic Regions of India

 

Changing crop pattern in India

 

Agricultural Development Policies during Five Year Plans

 

The New Agricultural PolicyGreen Revolution

 

MINERAL RESOURCES OF INDIA

Distribution of Minerals and Energy Resources

Problems Posed by Mineral Extraction

Thermal Power Sources

Hydel – hydroelectric Power Resources

Nuclear Power

Non-conventional Sources of Energy

HISTORY OF MODERN INDUSTRIES OF INDIA

Cotton Textile Industry

Sugar Industry

Iron and Steel Industry

Petro-Chemicals Industry

 

RAIL TRANSPORT IN INDIA

The Regions of Railway Network in India- Dense, Moderate and Sparse

ROAD TRANSPORT IN INDIA

Geographical Distribution of Roads in India

National Highway Development Project (NHDP)

PIPELINE TRANSPORT IN INDIA

WATER TRANSPORT IN INDIA

 

POPULATION OF INDIA

Physical factors influencing the distribution and density of population

Population Density at State Level

Growth of Population

Rural-Urban Population Composition