INDUSTRIES AND CRAFTS IN THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION


The Harappan people were aware of almost all the metals except iron.

They manufactured gold and silver objects.

But the use of silver was more common than gold.

A number of copper tools and weapons have also been discovered.

The common tools included axe, saws, chisels, knives, spearheads, and arrowheads.

The weapons produced by the Harappans were mostly defensive in nature as there is no evidence of weapons like swords, etc.

Copper was brought mainly from Khetri in Rajasthan.

Gold might have been obtained from the Himalayan river-beds and South India, and silver from Mesopotamia.

There are pieces of evidence of the use of the bronze though in a limited manner.

The most famous specimen in this regard is the bronze ‘dancing girl’ figurine discovered at Mohenjodaro.

Bead-making also was an important craft. Steatite was used for making beads.

The evidence of bead makers’ shops has been found at Chanhudaro and Lothal.

Ivory carving and inlaying used in beads, bracelets and other decorations were also in practice.

A well-known piece of art of the Harappan period is a stone sculpture of a bearded man discovered at Mohenjodaro.

A large number of terracotta figurines of males and females have been discovered from various Harappan sites.

Pottery-making was also an important industry in the Harappan period.

The Harappans manufactured seals of various kinds.

These were generally square in shape and were made of steatite.

The most famous of the seals is the one with a horned male deity represented on it. He has three heads and is sitting in a yogic posture surrounded by four animals viz elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, and a buffalo. He has been identified by many scholars with the ancient form of the god Pashupati (Lord of beasts) though there are others who dispute this identification.

 

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