The high prices as a result of the first world war and fall in the production due to labour unrest made the condition of the common people all the more miserable.
Besides the demand for constitutional reforms, revolutionary terrorism also added to the political unrest of the time.
In order to suppress all this, the British government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 by which the government assumed the power to imprison persons without trial.
Further, anybody might be punished with transportation for life, the Press was gagged, the executive department was authorized to try political offenders without the help of the jury.
Gandhiji organised a passive resistance movement in protest.
In Punjab, the movement became very strong.
The citizens of Amritsar assembled in an enclosed place called Jalianwalla Bagh in defiance of a prohibitory order.
Under orders of General Dyer, the military fired 1600 rounds of ammunition on the unarmed people killing even according to official estimates 379 persons and injuring 1200.
Martial law was proclaimed in Punjab.
During the administration of Lord Chelmsford Amir Habib Ullah of Afghanistan was assassinated and his son Aman Ullah succeeded as Amir.
Under Chelmsford’s administration the reform Act of 1919 on the basis of the Montagu-Chelmsford report, was passed.
In 1920 Aligarh Muslim University was founded.
In 1920 Central Advisory Board on education was founded.