Lord Ripon (1880-84)

Lord Ripon tried to make the Indian administration democratic in character.

He undertook liberal and public welfare measures.

In muni­cipal administration, he gave the Indians the right to self-government.

He established Local Boards and placed the rural administration, public health, construction and maintenance of roads, education, prevention and fighting of epidemics and infectious diseases, etc. in their charge.

These self-governing institutions were given the full control over income and expenditure of the areas under them.

Lord Ripon extended the local self-government not only in urban areas but also in rural areas and in place of nominated members arranged for the election of the members, mayors, chairmen, etc.

In this way, he made the local self-government democratic in character.

Some of the members of these institutions were still nominated by the govern­ment.

He completed the policy of freedom of trade initiated under Lord Northbrook and Lord Lytton.

He abolished tariffs from all commo­dities except salt, wine, arms, and ammunition.

The tariff duty of salt was considerably reduced.

Lord Ripon repealed the Vernacular Press Act 1878.

Lord Ripon appointed a Commission under Sir William Hunter’s Chairmanship to review the progress of education under the new policy followed pursuant to Wood’s Despatch of 1854.

In order to prevent the eviction of the ryots by the zamindars, Ripon prepared a Tenancy Act which was passed under the next governor-general.

In 1881 Ripon passed the Factory Act prohibiting employment of children between seven and twelve years of age for more than nine hours per day in any factory.

He modified Permanent Settlement.

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