The Madras Province Swarajya Party was established in 1923.
S. Satyamurti and S. Srinivasa Iyengar led the party.
The party contested in all provincial elections between 1923 and 1934 with the exception of the 1930 election in which it did not participate officially due to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
The party emerged as the single largest party in the 1926 and 1934 Assembly elections but refused to form the provincial government under the existing dyarchy system.
In 1934, the Madras Province Swarajya Party merged with the All India Swarajya Party which subsequently merged with the Indian National Congress when it contested the 1935 elections to the Imperial Legislative Council held as per the Government of India Act 1935.