The Malabar rebellion [Moplah Rebellion] was an armed uprising in 1921 against British authority and Hindu landlords in the Malabar region of Southern India by Mappila Muslims.

The leaders of this rebellion were Variyankunnath Haji, Seethi Koya Thangal of Kumaranpathor and Ali Musliyar.

The Moplahs were Muslim peasants.

Their land­lords who were called Jenmis were mostly Hindus.

The relations between the Jenmis and the Moplahs were un­friendly.

In other words, the relations were both economically and religiously antagonistic.

Since 1835 the Hindu landlords sup­pressed the Moplah tenants.

The land tenure system in Malabar was quite unfavourable to the Moplah tenants.

The immediate cause of Moplah agitation was the renewal of fee at an exorbitant rate fixed by the Jenmis.

One of the motivating factor for 1921 Moplah agitation was the Khilafat Movement which constituted a wider part of national struggle for independence.

This movement developed its roots in Malabar also.

The Moplahs took active part in Khilafat movement also.

The British government was weakened as a result of the First World War.

The final break came only when the district magistrate of Eranad taluka, on 20th August, 1921, raided the mosque at Tirurangadi to arrest Ali Musaliar a Khilafat leader and a highly respected priest.

The situation was under control by the end of the 1921.

The British administration raised a special quasi-military (or Armed Police) battalion, the Malabar Special Police (MSP), initially consisting of non-Muslims and trained by the British Indian Army.

The MSP then attacked the rioters and eventually subdued them.