The NMSA was launched in 2011-12.
It aims at enhancing food security and protection of resources such as land, water, biodiversity, and genetic resources by developing strategies to make Indian agriculture more resilient to climate change.
 To make agriculture more productive, sustainable, remunerative and climate resilient by promoting location specific Integrated/Composite Farming Systems.
 To conserve natural resources through appropriate soil and moisture conservation measures.
 To adopt comprehensive soil health management practices based on soil fertility maps, soil test based application of macro & micro nutrients, judicious use of fertilizers etc.
 To optimize utilization of water resources through efficient water management to expand coverage for achieving ‘more crop per drop’.
 To develop capacity of farmers & stakeholders, in conjunction with other on-going Missions e.g. National Mission on Agriculture Extension & Technology, National Food Security Mission, National Initiative for Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) etc., in the domain of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.
 To pilot models in select blocks for improving productivity of rainfed farming by mainstreaming rainfed technologies refined through NICRA and by leveraging resources from other schemes like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), RKVY etc.
 To establish an effective inter and intra Departmental/Ministerial co-ordination for accomplishing key deliverables of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture under the aegis of NAPCC.
NMSA has following four major programme components—
 Rainfed Area Development (RAD)—
RAD will adopt an area based approach for development and conservation of natural resources along with farming systems.
This component has been formulated to explore potential utilization of natural resources base/assets available/created through watershed development and soil conservation activities /interventions under MGNREGS, NWDPRA, RVP&FPR, RKVY, IWMP etc..
This component will introduce appropriate farming systems by integrating multiple components of agriculture such as crops, horticulture, livestock, fishery, forestry with agro based income generating activities and value addition.
RAD clusters should have soil analysis/soil health card/soil survey maps to justify the interventions proposed and at least 25% of the farming system area will have to be covered under On Farm Water Management.
 On Farm Water Management (OFWM)—
OFWM will focus primarily on enhancing water use efficiency by promoting efficient on-farm water management technologies and equipment.
This will not only focus on application efficiency but, in conjunction with RAD component, also will emphasize on effective harvesting & management of rainwater.
 Soil Health Management (SHM)—
SHM will aim at promoting location as well as crop specific sustainable soil health management including residue management, organic farming practices by way of creating and linking soil fertility maps with macro-micro nutrient management, appropriate land use based on land capability, judicious application of fertilizers and minimizing the soil erosion/degradation.
Assistance will be provided for various improved package of practices based on land use and soil characteristics, generated through geographical information system (GIS) based thematic maps and database on land and soil characteristics through extensive field level scientific surveys.
This component will also provide support to reclamation of problem soils (acid/alkaline/saline).
This component will be implemented by State Govt., National Centre of Organic Farming (NCOF), Central Fertilizer Quality Control & Training Institute (CFQC&TI) and Soil and Land Use Survey of India (SLUSI).
 Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture: Monitoring, Modeling and Networking (CCSAMMN)—
CCSAMMN will provide creation and bidirectional (land/farmers to research/scientific establishments and vice versa) dissemination of climate change related information and knowledge by way of piloting climate change adaptation/mitigation research/model projects in the domain of climate smart sustainable management practices and integrated farming system suitable to local agro-climatic conditions.