The non-cooperation was led by Mahatma Gandhi and was supported by the Indian National Congress.

Gandhi started the non-cooperation movement for removing British in January 1920 after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

It aimed to resist British rule in India through nonviolent means.

Factors that led to the movement –

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

Economic hardships.

Ruin of Indian artisans due to British factory-made goods replacing handmade goods.

Resentment with the British government over Indian soldiers dying in World War I while fighting as part of the British Army.

Gandhi promised Swaraj in one year if his Non Cooperation Programme was fully implemented.

Another reason to start the non-cooperation movement was that Gandhi lost faith in constitutional methods and turned from cooperator of British rule to non-cooperator.


All offices and factories would be closed.

Indians would be encouraged to withdraw from Raj-sponsored schools, police services, the military and the civil service, and lawyers were asked to leave the Raj’s courts.

Public transportation and English-manufactured goods, especially clothing, was boycotted.

Veterans like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant and Sammed Akiwate opposed the idea outright.

The All India Muslim League also criticized the idea.

But the younger generation of Indian nationalists was thrilled, and backed Gandhi.

On February 5, 1922, in the Chauri Chaura, after violent clashes between the local police and the protesters in which three protesters were killed by police firing, the police chowki (station) was set on fire by the mob, killing 22 of the police occupants.

The non-cooperation movement was withdrawn because of the Chauri Chaura incident.

On March 10, 1922, Gandhi was arrested.

On March 18, 1922, he was imprisoned for six years for publishing seditious materials.

This led to suppression of movements.

Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das rejected Gandhi’s leadership and formed the Swaraj Party.