Petroleum has often been called liquid gold because of its value in our modern civilization.
Our agriculture, industry and transport system depend on petroleum in several ways.
The crude petroleum is a mixture of combustible hydrocarbons in solid, liquid and gaseous forms.
Petroleum products used as fuel, lubricant, material for manufacturing synthetic derivatives and chemicals required in industries.
Petrol, kerosene, diesel, detergents, synthetic fibers, plastics, cosmetics etc. are important products derived from petroleum.
Petroleum occurs in anticlines and fault traps.
In India, it is found in the sedimentary rock formation.
Most of such areas lie in the Assam, Gujarat and off shore areas along the western coast.
The entire production of India till today comes from the Assam belt, Gujarat- Cambay belt and Bombay High.
The Assam belt extends from Dehang basin in the extreme north-east of Assam along the outer flanks of hill ranges forming the eastern border of Bhitra and Surma Valley.
The Gujarat-Cambay belt extends from Mehsana (Gujarat) in the north to the continental shelf off the coast right up to Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) in the south.
It covers Bombay High which is the largest producer of petroleum in the country.
In Assam, the oil producing area is located in the Lakhimpur and Sibsagar districts.
The oil wells are located mainly around Digboi, Naharkatiya. Sibsagar and Rudrasagar.
In Gujarat, the oil producing area covers Vadodara, Broach, Kheda, Mehsana and Surat Districts.
Recently petroleum reserves are discovered in the state of Rajasthan covering major areas of Bikaner, Barmer and Jaisalmer and gas has been discovered along the east coast in the Godavari and Krishna deltas.
The prospective areas lie in the Bay of Bengal, which covers the coastline along the state of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.