Physical factors influencing distribution and density of population


Physical factors play a vital role in the density and distribution of population.

Physical factors include landform, climate, soil, etc.

[1] Landforms

It influences the distribution pattern of population.

The most important attributes of landforms which determine population density and distribution are the altitude and slope.

The most striking evidence of the influence of altitude and slope on population density and distribution has been observed between mountains and plains.

For example, take the case of most densely populated Indo-Ganga plains on the one hand and a highly mountainous state of Arunachal Pradesh on the other.

Other than this, factors like drainage, and water table have also been affecting population distribution.

[2] Climate

It is one of the essential elements of the physical factors which influence the spatial distribution of population through temperature conditions and the amount of precipitation.

Take the case of hot and dry deserts of Rajasthan and the cold and wet Eastern Himalayan region where very low temperature and heavy precipitations prevail.

This is the reason for uneven distribution and low density of population here.

Almost even distribution and high density of population are found in plains of Kerala and West Bengal where rainfall is high.

It is low in the regions of Rajasthan, and lee-ward sides of Western Ghats.

[3] Soil

It is another factor which affects the density and distribution of population.

About 75 percent population of India lives in villages.

People in villages earn their livelihood from agriculture which depends upon the quality of soil.

That is why alluvial region of northern plains and coastal and deltaic regions of India continue to support high densities of population.

Rajasthan, Rann of Kuchchh in Gujarat, Tarai region in Uttarakhand have been suffering from problems like soil erosion and soil effloresce.

These regions  support low density of population.

In any region, the density and distribution is influenced by more than one factor.

Take for example North-Eastern region of India.

Here several factors are responsible for low density of population.

These factors are high rainfall, rough terrain, dense forests and poor quality of soil.