The Mughal empire was divided into twelve provinces or subas by Akbar.

Each suba was placed under a Subedar or provincial governor who was directly appointed by the Emperor.

The subedar was head of the province and responsible for maintenance of general law and order.

He was to encourage agriculture, trade and commerce and take steps to enhance the revenue of the state.


The head of the revenue department in the suba was the Diwan.

He was also expected to increase the area under cultivation.

In many cases advance loans (taqavi) were given to peasants through his office.


The Bakshi in the province performed the same functions as were performed by Mir Bakshi at the centre.

He was appointed by the imperial court at the recommendations of the Mir Bakshi.

He was responsible for checking and inspecting the horses and soldiers maintained by the mansabdars in the suba.


The representative of the central Sadr (Sadr-us sudur) at the provincial level was called Sadr.

He was responsible for the welfare of those who were engaged in religious activities and learning.


Darogai-i-Dak was responsible for maintaining the communication channel.

He used to pass on letters to the court through the postal runners (Merwars).

Waqainavis and waqainigars were appointed to provide reports directly to the Emperor.