RAZIYA – AD 1236–40

Iltutmish nominated his daughter Raziya as his successor.

But after his death his son Ruknuddin Firoz ascended the throne with the help of army leaders.

However with the support of the people of Delhi and some military leaders, Raziya soon ascended the throne.

Despite her obvious qualities, Raziya did not fare significantly better primarily because of her attempts to create a counter nobility of non-Turks and invited the wrath of the Turkish amirs.

They were particularly incensed over her decision to appoint the Abyssinian, Malik Jamaluddin Yaqut, as the amir-i-akhur (master of the horses); the recruitment of a few other non-Turks to important posts further inflamed matters.

The nobility realized that, though a woman, Raziya was not willing to be a puppet in their hands, therefore the nobles started revolting against her in the provinces.

They accused her of violating feminine modesty and being too friendly to an Abbyssinian noble, Yaqut.

She got killed after she was defeated by the nobles.

She established schools, academies, centers for research, and public libraries that included the works of ancient philosophers along with the Quran and the traditions of Muhammad.