The Anushilan Samiti was established by Pramathanath Mitra, a barrister from Calcutta.
Sri Aurobindo and Deshabandhu Chittaranjan Das were made the vice-presidents of the Samiti.
Jatindra Nath Banerjee (Niralamba Swami), Jatindra Nath Mukherjee (Bagha Jatin), Bhupendra Nath Datta (Swami Vivekananda`s brother), Barindra Ghosh were the other legendary nationalist leaders.
The partition of Bengal in 1905 led the Anushilan Samiti to take up fulltime extremism programs.
The Dhaka branch of Anushilan was led by Pulin Behari Das and spread branches through East Bengal and Assam.
The Calcutta Anushilan Samiti and the Dhaka Anushilan Samiti were now unionized on the lines of the secret societies of Russia and Italy.
The revolutionary activities of Calcutta Anushilan Samiti started taking off from 1907.
On 6th December 1907, members of the Anushilan Samiti had attempted to blow up the train of Lieutenant-Governor of the new province of East Bengal and Assam.
On 23rd December, they again initiated to assassinate Mr. Allen, previously District Magistrate of Dhaka.
On 30 April 1908, two Bengali youths, Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose, threw a bomb on a carriage at Muzzafarpur, to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate Douglas Kingsford of Calcutta fame, but erroneously killed two women traveling in it.
While Prafulla Chaki committed suicide when caught, Khudiram Bose was hanged.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak praised the Bengal terrorist through his paper Kesari.
The Alipur Conspiracy Case led to a division within the Anushilan Samiti.
Dhaka Anushilan Samiti soon became greater insignificance compared to its parent body in Calcutta.
In Madras province, the people were excited by the eloquent speeches of Bipin Chandra Pal.
His arrest led to a serious riot in Tuticorn and Tinnevelly in which police opened fire in a defiant crowd.
As he who had ordered the firing at Tinnevelly, was assassinated by Vanchi Iyar of the Bharatha Matha Associations. Unable to escape, Vanchi Iyar shot himself.
Barin Ghosh was the main leader.
Along with 21 revolutionaries including Bagha Jatin, he started to collect arms and explosives and manufactured bombs.
Some senior members of the group were sent abroad for political and military training.
One of them, Hemchandra Kanungo obtained his training in Paris.
After returning to Calcutta he set up a combined religious school and bomb factory at a garden house in Maniktola suburb of Calcutta.
However, the attempted murder of district Judge Kingsford of Muzaffarpur by Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki (30 April 1908) initiated a police investigation that led to the arrest of many of the revolutionaries.
Jugantar, along with other revolutionary groups, and aided by Indians abroad, planned an armed revolt against the British rulers during the First World War.
This plan largely depended on the clandestine landing of German arms and ammunition on the Indian coast.
This plan came to be known as the Indo-German Plot.
However, the planned revolt did not materialize.
After the First World War Jugantar supported Gandhi in the Non-Cooperation Movement and many of their leaders were in Congress.