Islam was founded and preached by Prophet Muhammad (AD 570–632).
Islam laid emphasis upon belief in one God and its holy book as the “QURAN”.
Quran is respected as the supreme source of authority in Islam.
Every Muslim was asked to pray five times a day, to fast during the month of Ramzan, to distribute alms and to make a pilgrimage, if possible, to Mecca.
After the death of Prophet (AD 632) the task of providing religious and political leadership to the Muslims passed on to the Caliphs (Caliph is derived from the Arabic word ‘Khalifa’ which means ‘deputy’).
This is a title given to the rulers who succeeded Prophet Muhammad.
Between AD 632–661 there were four pious Caliphs, all close companions of the Prophet.
The Umayyad Caliphate (AD 661–750) succeeded the pious Caliphs.
Umayyad dynasty gave stability and prosperity to the Caliphate.
Umayyad dynasty was followed by the Abbasid Caliphate (AD 750–1258).
During the time of later Abbasids, the Caliphs began to lose political control and independent Muslim Rulers (Sultans) emerged in several regions.