The Swaraj Party, established as the Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party, was a political party.
It was formed on 9 January 1923 after the Gaya annual conference in December 1922 of Indian national congress.
The Party was formed by Indian politicians and members of the Indian National Congress who had opposed Mahatma Gandhi’s suspension of all civil resistance.
In December 1922, Chittaranjan Das, Narasimha Chintaman Kelkar, and Motilal Nehru formed the Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party.
Chittaranjan Das was its president and Nehru was one of the secretaries.
Other prominent leaders included Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Subhas Chandra Bose of Bengal, Vithalbhai Patel and other Congress leaders who were becoming dissatisfied with the Congress were known as Pro-Changers.
The other group was the ‘No-Changers‘, who had accepted Gandhi’s decision to withdraw the movement.
On the advice of Gandhi, the two groups decided to remain in Congress but to work in their separate ways.
Swarajist members were elected to the councils.
Vithalbhai Patel became the president of the Central Legislative Assembly.
With the death of Chittaranjan Das in 1925, and with Motilal Nehru’s return to the Congress the following year, the Swaraj party was greatly weakened.
In 1930, the Swarajists finally walked out as a result of the Lahore Congress resolution on purna swaraj and the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
A noteworthy achievement of the Swaraj Party was the defeat of the Public Safety Bill in 1928 which was aimed at empowering the Government to deport undesirable and subversive foreigners.
By their activities, they filled the political vacuum at a time when the national movement was recouping its strength.
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