The Evergreen Rainforest Biome


This biome extends up to 100 latitudes on both sides of the equator.

It covers the area of Amazon low land of South America, Congo basin of equatorial Africa and South Eastern Asian Islands extending from Sumatra to New Guinea.

This area experiences high temperature throughout the year with range as little as 20C.

However, the daily range of temperature is much higher than the annual range of temperature.

This area gets heavy rainfall ranging between 150cm-250cm.

It is distributed throughout the year.

Rainfall occurs in the afternoon almost on daily basis.

This also happens because of huge amount of water vapor reaching in the atmosphere due to high temperature.

Hence, this area is considered to be an equable climate as both temperature and rainfall are high for whole of the year.

 

The combination of heat and moisture make this biome as perfect environment for a great variety of plants and animal species.

The variety of plant species can be understood from the fact that one square kilometer may contain as many as about thousand of different types of plant species.

Most of the trees have buttressed trunks, shallow roots and large dark evergreen leaves.

The evergreen rainforest arranged in three levels.

[1] The canopy or upper level where trees lie between about 20 metres to 50 metres. Most of them are hard wood trees like ebony, Mahogany, rosewood, sandalwood, cinchona, etc.

[2] The second level of intermediary level where trees lies between about 10 meters to 20 meters. The most important plant of this group is palm trees. Apart from palm trees, epiphytic and parasitic plants are also found in this layer.

[3] The third or lower level lies from surface level to about 10 meters of heights. Under this category variety of plants are found namely orchids, ferns, mosses, herbs, bananas, pineapples etc.

Because of tall and broad leaved dense plants, sunlight could not reach at the lowest level/surface. Because of poor photo-synthesis process at this level, number of plant species is very low.

 

Like vegetation, evergreen rainforest is inhabited by numerous birds, mammals, insets etc.

Some important animals of this biome are Jaguar, lemur, orangutan, elephant, etc.

Macaw parrot, sloth and toucan are some of the important birds of this area. Most of the birds are colorful.

The water bodies of the equatorial areas are also rich in animal life with alligators, tactless, fishes, frogs, Hippopotamus etc.

Because of the impenetrability and high vegetation growth in the lower part, most of the insects, birds and animals reside on the branches of the trees.

Generally, they do not come down to the ground.

The productivity of the tropical rainforest biome is the highest of all biome types of the world.

The rainforest biome accounts for the 40 percent of the total productivity of the world.