The First Anglo–Mysore War (1767–1769) was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company.
The war began in January 1767 when the Marathas invaded northern Mysore.
They reached as far south as the Tungabhadra River before Hyder entered into negotiations to end the invasion.
In exchange for payments of 30 lakh rupees, the Marathas agreed to withdraw north of the Krishna River; by March, when the Nizam began his invasion, they had already withdrawn.
Muhammad Ali the Nawab of Carnatic was an ally of the English.
There was a dispute between Haidar Ali and Muhamad Ali relating to places like Dindigul, Karur, and Paini.
Haidar Ali was also opposed to the establishment of an English cantonment at Vellore which was within the territory of the Nawab.
He gave shelter to the enemies of the Nawab.
In November 1766 the Governor and the Council of Madras formed an alliance with Nizam and agreed to assist him against Haidar Ali.
The Nizam was to surrender Northern Sarkars to the English as the price of the military help against Haidar Ali.
The Marathas, the Nizam, and the English thus formed a Triple Alliance against Haidar Ali.
But very soon the Nizam came under the influence of Mahaluz Khan the brother and rival of Muhammad Ali and left the British camp.
The Nizam allied himself with Haidar Ali.
In 1767 Haidar Ali and the Nizam invaded the territories of the Nawab of Carnatic, but they were defeated by General Joseph Smith in the battles of Changama and Trinomali.
The Nizam again abandoned Haidar Ali and allied himself with the English.
He also promised to help the English and the Nawab of Carnatic against Haidar.
In 1769 Haidar Ali repeatedly defeated the British forces.
Treaty of Madras
Finally, a peace treaty was concluded between Haidar Ali and the English on 4th April 1769.
The English promised to help Haidar in case he was attacked by any other power.
The Treaty contained a clause requiring the British to assist Hyder Ali if he was attacked by his neighbors.
But Hyder Ali didn’t receive any help when Mysore went to war with the Marathas in 1771.
Bad faith arising from the broken clause may have been a reason behind the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Mysore War a decade later.
Click the following links to Read more:
- The Second Mysore war-1780-84 and Treaty of Mangalore
- Third Mysore war 1790-92 and Treaty of Shrirangapattanam