The Parthians were of Iranian origin and because of strong cultural connection with the Shakas, these groups were referred to in the Indian sources as Shaka-Pahlava.

The important inscription indicating the Parthian rule in northwestern area of Pakistan is the famous Takht-i-Bahi inscription recovered from Mardan near Peshawar.

The inscription, dated in 45 AD, refers to Gondophernes or Gondophares as a Parthian ruler.

Some literary sources associate him with St. Thomas, who is said to have converted both, the king and his brother, to Christianity.