The Swadeshi Movement was the extension of the anti-partition movement, which was started to oppose the British decision of partition of Bengal.

The formal proclamation of the movement was made on August 7, 1905, at a meeting held at the Calcutta Townhall.

The Indian National Congress, at its Banaras Session (1905, presided over by G.K.Gokhale) supported Swadeshi and boycott movement in Bengal.

The Bengalis adopted the boycott movement as the last resort.

The original conception of Boycott was mainly an economic one.

It was preached by several eminent personalities in the 19th century, Gopal Hari Deshmukh, better known as Lokahitawadi of Bombay, Arya Samaj founder Dayanand Saraswati and Bholanath Chandra of Calcutta.

The positive element of economic swadeshi was the regeneration of indigenous goods.

The boycott of foreign goods led to the increase in demand of indigenous goods.

The swadeshi movement gave a positive impetus to indigenous industries.

P.C. Ray established the Bengal Chemical Factory.

The Tata Iron and Steel Company was established in 1911 in Bihar.

Emphasis on national education

The National Council of Education was established by Raja Subodh Chandra Malik, Brajendra Roy, Rasbihari Ghosh, Rabindranath Tagore, and Aurobindo Ghosh.

The Bengal National College and Bengal National School were established in 1906.

Aurobindo Ghosh was the first principal of the Bengal National College.

A new wave of poetry, prose, and journalism emerged during the period of the Swadeshi Movement.

Rabindranath’s  Amar Sonar Bangla, written at that time, was to later inspire the liberation struggle of Bangladesh and was adopted as the National Anthem of the country in 1971.

The writings of Bande Mataram practically revolutionized the political attitude of Bengal.


The student community of Bengal played an active role in popularizing the Swadeshi.

The womenfolk rendered moral support to the movement.

The labour movement during the period also had a Swadeshi tone.

The Swadeshi movement could not unify the divided Bengal.

The Swadeshi movement was a united movement of the Indians. Indeed, the manner in which the movement integrated the people of India had never been seen before.


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