The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat, about 60 miles (97 km) north of Delhi.
The battle was fought between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and the forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian Muslim allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh.
The conquest of Punjab brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Afgan general, Ahmad Shah Abdali.
The Maratha and Afgan forces met at Panipat in AD 1761.
No Indian power came forward to assist the Marathas.
This was because the Marathas had alienated all of them.
This, along with the fact that the Marathas lacked unity, were two of the biggest factors in their defeat in the third battle of Panipat.
Causes of the Third Battle of Panipat
After the attack of Nadir Shah, the foundation of the Mughal Empire was shaken.
Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao and his Generals had established their terror in the South by establishing their influence on Karnataka and Nizam etc.
Raghunathrao made his faithful Sardar Adani Beg, the governor of Punjab and defeated Vimurashah son of Ahmed Shah Abdali.
So Ahmed Shah Abdali decided to attack India.
Marathas started to fight with Nizam, Avadh, and Rajputs.
Scindia and Holkar were also enemies because of the interrupting the problem of the succession of Ishwar Singh and Madhav Singh.
Due to this internal dispute, Ahmed Shah Abdali was much encouraged.
Rajputs also did not help Maratha.
Ahmed Shah Abdali’s anger was fierced by the Marathas Punjab victory.
Getting the invitation of the Ruhels and Rajputs he attacked India at once.
Results of the third battle of Panipat
In this battle, a big number of Marathas was killed.
Marathas lost their sovereignty in Panipat, Doab, etc.
Marathas gradually lost their control in North India.
After this Maratha Sardars began to quarrel among themselves and the Maratha power completely ended.
Other kings were eager to ally Marathas. But after the defeat in the battle of Panipat, their prestige was lost and their military morale was minimized.
Mughal Empire fell by this battle.
Mughal emperors were only for the name, everywhere free rule was established.
Due to internal dispute and anarchy in India, the English had established their influence.
The Internal disputes of Marathas and Muslims made them weak and opened the door of getting sovereignty for the English.