The Treaty of Amritsar of 1809 was an agreement between the British East India Company and Ranjit Singh, the Sikh leader who founded the Sikh empire.
Ranjit Singh had established a capital at Lahore in 1799 when he defeated Zaman Shah, an Afghan leader.
He proclaimed himself maharajah of Punjab.
By 1808 he had control of an area bounded by Gujarat, Ludhiana, and Multan.
Treaty of Amritsar, (April 25, 1809), pact concluded between Charles T. Metcalfe, representing the British East India Company, and Ranjit Singh, head of the Sikh kingdom of Punjab.
The treaty settled Indo-Sikh relations for a generation.
The immediate occasion was the French threat to northwestern India, following Napoleon’s Treaty of Tilsit with Russia (1807) and Ranjit Singh’s attempt to bring the Cis-Sutlej states under his control.
The British wanted a defensive treaty against the French and control of Punjab to the Sutlej River.
The treaty prevented Ranjit Singh from any further territorial expansion south of the Sutlej.
The treaty permitted Ranjit Singh’s complete freedom of action to the north of it.
This enabled him to gain control of areas such as Peshawar and Kashmir.
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